Table: Nature and Scope of Assessment Activity

I. Functions & purposes of assessment A. Identification
    1. Screening & referral
    2. Diagnostic labeling
    3. Nonpathological attributes

B. Selection/placement
    1. Clarification of options
    2. Client decisions about general changes instatus
    3. Professional and agency decision to accept or reject applicants

C. Specific planning for change
    1.Detailed objectives
    2. Detailed procedures

D. Evaluation of interventions
    1. Individual efficacy
    2. Efficacy for all participants
    3. Impact on society

II. Major phases related to assessment A. Preparatory decisions about what is to be assessed (implicit or explicit rationale for assessment activity)

B. Description ("measurements" of specified variables and serendipitous data gathering, followed by analyses and descriptive summaries)

C. Judgements (interpretations)

D. Communications and decision making with reference to assessment purposes

III. Focus of assessment A. Focal point
    1. Person(s)- individuals or groups of individuals or groups of individuals
    2. Environment(s)
    3. Person-environment transactions

B. Nature of phenomena
    1. Problematic-nonproblematic conditions
    2. Observable -inferred
    3. Proximal-distal
    4. Historic-current-future expectations

    1. Molecular-molar analyses of persons
    2. Primary, secondary, tertiary contextual analysis
    3. Transaction of persons-environment

D. Areas or domains
    1.Biological and psychological processes
    2. Motor and verbal functioning
    3. Physical environment
    5. Transaction of persons-environment

IV. Types of procedures and instruments (standardized, semi-standardized, or understandardized) A. Interviews and written personal reports (responses to oral or written questions, inventories of items, etc.)

B. Observations

C. Verbal and performance measures
(objective instruments such as achievement tests; projective instruments such as thematic pictures; insturments developed by teachers, psychologists, and MDs that have not been formally and technically standardized

D. Biological tests
(electrorecording devices, chemical analyses)

E. Available records and data
(analyses of current or cumulated records related to person, environment, transactions; analyses of natural performances and products, such as portfolio assessment)