Figure 1. Accountability as related to different intervention goals.
Purpose of Intervention
Accountability to Who?
Sampling of Objectives/Goals
To meet society's goals Accountable to society Data are gathered on indicators that reflect society's purposes in financing the institution
To meet an institution's goals Accountable to a specific institution Data are gathered on indicators that reflect the institution's purposes
To meet the personal goals of specific clients Accountable to specific clients Data are gathered on indicators that reflect individual client's purposes in participating in an intervention
To meet some combination of society, institution, and individual goals Combination of the above Combination of the above
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Figure 2. Evaluation/accountability/results: Sampling indicators with respect to different accountability demands.

Note: Not included here are indicators of negative effects that may accure for individuals, interveners, institutions and the society (e.g., the many psychological, social, and economic costs). Clearly, data on these matters is essential -- although they tend to be ignored in many so-called results -oriented demands for accountability.

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